Biology for 11 grade

Teacher: Miglena
Customers Who Have Viewed This Course: 1667
$377.00

Section 1 Introduction to cells

1 Introduction to the course 03:20

Picture of Introduction to the course

This course is meant to overcome the difficulties in understanding the main concepts in cell and molecular biology. Most of the students who have demonstrated an interest in biology just give up because they think they cannot understand these two main units. This course helps them to understand the units  and to foster their courage and going on with even deeper digging in biology. Upon completion of this course, students will have the necessary knowledge and skills to advance to grade 12 biology.

2 Intro to cell Part 1 30:00

Picture of Intro to cell Part 1

The lesson includes Cell theory statements, common features of all cells- cell membrane, enzymes, cell respiration, and explanations of cell theory exceptions.

Cell theory

 

3 Explanations Intro to cell Part 1 07:00

Explanations of Home Work Paper of lesson 2

4 Intro to cell Part 2 28:00

Picture of Intro to cell Part 2

The lessons explains the exceptions of cell theory, demonstrates structure of the light microscope and how to work with it, how to prepare microscopic slides, images of micrographs (pictures taking under a microscope), how to draw bacterial, plant and animal cells, how to recognize different kinds of cells when observing under a microscope

Electron microscope

5 Explanations Intro to cell Part 2 08:00

Explanations of Home Work Paper of lesson 3

6 Intro to cell Part 3 30:00

Picture of Intro to cell Part 3

Drawing plant and animal cells and their structures; unicellular organisms and cell activities; surface area to volume ratio importance

Surface are to volume ratio

7 Explanations Intro to cell Part 3 16:00

Explanations of Home Work Paper of lesson 6

8 More about cell Part 1 23:00

Picture of More about cell Part 1
1.Multicellular organisms have properties that emerge from the interaction  of their cellular components.
2.Specialized tissues can develop by cell differentiation in multicellular organisms.
3. Differentiation involves the expression of some genes and not others in a cell’s genome
 

9 Explanations More about cell Part 1 08:00

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 8

10 More about cell Part 2 30:00

Picture of More about cell Part 2

Multicellular organisms have properties that emerge from the interaction of their cellular components.
Specialized tissues can develop by cell differentiation in multicellular organisms.
Differentiation involves the expression of some genes and not others in a cell’s genome

Cell differentiation

11 Explanations More about cell Part 2 06:00

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 10

12 More about cell Part 3 26:00

Picture of More about cell Part 3
3.The capacity of stem cells to divide and differentiate along different pathways is necessary in embryonic development and also makes stem cells suitable for therapeutic uses.
 

Section 2 Structure of cells

13 Explanations More about cell Part 3 08:00

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 12

14 Prokaryotic cells Part 1 25:00

Difference between light end electron microscope and their application in observation of prokaryotic cells

Prokaryotic cells

15 Explanations Prokaryotic cells Part 1 06:00

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 14

16 Prokaryotic cell Part 2 20:06

Picture of Prokaryotic cell Part 2

Prokaryotes have a simple cell structure without compartments

 

Drawing prokaryotic cells

17 Explanations Prokaryotic cells Part 2 08:00

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 16

18 Prokaryotic cell Part 3 25:00

Picture of Prokaryotic cell Part 3
3.Prokaryotes divide by binary fission.
4.Drawing of the ultrastructure of prokaryotic cells based on electron micrographs.
5.Drawings of prokaryotic cells should show the cell wall, pili and flagella, and plasma membrane enclosing cytoplasm that contains 70S ribosomes and a nucleoid with naked DNA.
 

19 Explanations Prokaryotic cells Part 3 07:00

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 18

20 Eukaryotic cell understandings 20:00

Picture of Eukaryotic cell understandings

 1.Eukaryotes have a compartmentalized cell structure. 2.Drawing of the ultrastructure of eukaryotic cells based on electron micrographs 3.Interpretation of electron micrographs to identify organelles and deduce the function of specialized cells. 4.Drawings of eukaryotic cells should show a plasma membrane enclosing cytoplasm that contains 80S ribosomes and a nucleus, mitochondria and other membrane-bound organelles are present in the cytoplasm. Some eukaryotic cells have a cell wall.

Cell compartmentalization

21 Explanations Eukaryotic cell understandings 09:00

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 20

22 Compartmentalization in eukaryotic cell 30:00

Picture of Compartmentalization in eukaryotic cell
1.Eukaryotes have a compartmentalized cell structure.
2.Drawing of the ultrastructure of eukaryotic cells based on electron micrographs
3.Interpretation of electron micrographs to identify organelles and deduce the function of specialized cells.
4.Drawings of eukaryotic cells should show a plasma membrane enclosing cytoplasm that contains 80S ribosomes and a nucleus, mitochondria and other membrane-bound organelles are present in the cytoplasm. Some eukaryotic cells have a cell wall.
 

23 Explanations Compartmentalization in eukaryotic cell 09:00

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 22

24 Compartmentalization in eukaryotic cell 27:30

Picture of Compartmentalization in eukaryotic cell

Structure and functions of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus

rER and GA

25 Explanations Compartmentalization in eukaryotic cell 08:00

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 24

26 Compartmentalization in eukaryotic cell 25:00

Picture of Compartmentalization in eukaryotic cell

Structure and function of mitochondrion

Mitochondrion

Lysosomes

27 Explanations Compartmentalization in eukaryotic cell 09:00

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 26

28 Mitochondria and chloroplasts 25:00

Drawing mitochondrion

Structure and functions of ribosomes

Structure and functions of chloroplasts

Drawing chloroplasts

Ribosomes

Chloroplasts

 

29 Explanations Mitochondria and chloroplasts 07:30

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 28

30 Plant and animal cells 30:00

Structure and functions of vacuoles and vesicles

Drawing plant cells

Drawing animal cells

Comparing plant and animal cell structures

 

Vacuoles and vesicles

Plant vs. Animal Cell

31 Explanations Plant and animal cells 15:00

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 30

32 Membrane structure Part 1 30:00

Phospholipids form bilayers in water due to the amphipathic properties of phospholipid molecules

Membrane proteins are diverse in terms of structure, position in the membrane and function

 Phospholipid bilayer

 

33 Explanations Membrane structure Part 1 07:00

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 32

34 Membrane structure Part 2 20:00

3.Cholesterol is a component of animal cell membranes.
4.Cholesterol in mammalian membranes reduces membrane fluidity and permeability to some solutes. 
 

35 Explanations Membrane structure Part 2 07:30

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 34

36 Membrane transport 1 25:00

Picture of Membrane transport 1

Understandings:

1.The fluidity of the membrane allows materials to be taken into cells by endocytosis or released by exocytosis
2.Vesicles move materials within the cell
3.Particles move across the membrane by simple diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion and active transport
Simple diffusion
 

37 Explanations Membrane transport 1 08:00

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 36

38 Membrane transport 2 30:00

Facilitated diffusion, osmosis, active transport, osmolarity

 

Facilitated diffusion

Osmosis

39 Explanations Membrane transport 2 14:00

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 38

40 Membrane transport 3 30:00

Picture of Membrane transport 3

Osmolarity experiment at home, calculating osmolarity change, hypotonic and hypertonic solutions, sodium-potassium pump

 

Osmolarity experiment

 

Sodium potassium pump

41 Explanations Membrane transport 3 09:00

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 40

Section 3 Cell cycle

42 Cell cycle 1 25:00

Picture of Cell cycle 1

Understand:

 

1.Mitosis is division of the nucleus into two genetically identical daughter nuclei.

2.  Chromosomes condense by supercoiling during mitosis.

3.Interphase is a very active phase of the cell cycle with many processes occurring in the nucleus and cytoplasm. 

43 Explanations Cell cycle 1 14:00

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 42

44 Cell cycle 2 07:00

Picture of Cell cycle 2

Main understanding of mitosis principles 

Cell cycle

45 Explanations Cell cycle 2 10:00

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 44

46 Mitosis 1 25:00

Picture of Mitosis 1

Sister chromtids, centromere, spindle fibers, centrioles, 

47 Explanations Mitosis 1 06:00

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 46

48 Mitosis 2 30:00

Picture of Mitosis 2

Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

 

Mitosis

49 Explanations Mitosis 2 12:00

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 48

50 Mitosis 3 Cytokinesis 25:00

Picture of Mitosis 3 Cytokinesis

Cytokinesis is different in plant and animal cells
Cyclins are involved in the control of the cell cycle

 

Cytokinesis

51 Explanations Mitosis 3 Cytokinesis 13:00

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 50

52 The origin of cells 1 28:59

Picture of The origin of cells 1

Virtual expriment                      Understandings:

•Cells can only be formed by division of pre-existing cells.
•The first cells must have arisen from non-living material.
•The origin of eukaryotic cells can be explained by the endosymbiotic theory.

53 Explanations The origin of cells 1 15:00

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 52

54 The origin of cells 2 25:00

Picture of The origin of cells 2
•The origin of eukaryotic cells can be explained by the endosymbiotic theory.
 
 

55 Explanations The origin of cells 2 15:00

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 54

Section 4 Metabolism of cells

56 Molecules to metabolism 1 22:05

Picture of Molecules to metabolism 1
•Molecular biology explains living processes in terms of the chemical substances involved.
•Carbon atoms can form four covalent bonds allowing a diversity of stable compounds to exist.

57 Explanations Molecules to metabolism 1 08:00

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 56

58 Molecules to metabolism 2 30:00

•Life is based on carbon compounds including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.
 

59 Explanations Molecules to metabolism 2 07:00

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 58

60 Molecules to metabolism 3 30:00

Picture of Molecules to metabolism 3

Drawing molecular diagrams of glucose (C6H12O6) and ribose (C5H10O5), saturated fatty acid, generalized amino acid; Identification of biochemicals as carbohydrate, lipid or protein from molecular diagrams

 

Proteins, lipids, carbohydrtes

61 Explanations Molecules to metabolism 3 16:00

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 60

62 Molecules to metabolism 4 30:00

Picture of Molecules to metabolism 4
•Metabolism is the web of all the enzyme-catalysed reactions in a cell or organism.
•Anabolism is the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler molecules including the formation of macromolecules from monomers by condensation reactions.
•Catabolism is the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler molecules including the hydrolysis of macromolecules into monomers.

63 Explanations Molecules to metabolism 4 12:00

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 62

64 Water molecule 1 28:00

Picture of Water molecule 1
1.Water molecules are polar and hydrogen bonds form between them.
 

65 Explanations Water molecule 1 15:00

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 64

66 Water molecule 2 20:00

Picture of Water molecule 2

Hydrogen bonding and dipolarity explain the cohesive and adhesive properties of water, application in plant leaves, hydrogen bonding explains the thermal properties of water 

 

Adhesion and cohesion

67 Explanations Water molecule 2 10:00

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 66

68 Water molecule 3 20:00

Picture of Water molecule 3

Hydrogen bonding and dipolarity explain solvent properties of water.
Substances can be hydrophilic or hydrophobic.

Solvent properties of water

69 Explanations Water molecule 3 07:00

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 68

Section 5 Biomolecules

70 Carbohydrates 1 30:00

Picture of Carbohydrates 1

Monosaccharides-monomers of carbohydrates

 

Monosaccharides

71 Explanations Carbohydrates 1 05:00

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 70

72 Carbohydrates 2 20:00

Picture of Carbohydrates 2

Disaccharides and polysaccarides consist of two or more monosaccharides as a result of condensation, function of cellulose, starch and glycogen

Fatty acids

73 Explanations Carbohydrates 2 12:00

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 72

74 Lipids 1 18:33

Picture of Lipids 1
•Fatty acids can be saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated.

75 Explanations Lipids 1 08:00

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 74

76 Lipids 2 25:00

Picture of Lipids 2
•Unsaturated fatty acids can be cis or trans isomers.
•Triglycerides are formed by condensation from three fatty acids and one glycerol.
 

77 Explanations Lipids 2 09:00

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 76

78 Proteins 1 25:00

Picture of Proteins 1
•Amino acids are linked together by condensation to form polypeptides.
•There are 20 different amino acids in polypeptides synthesized on ribosomes.
 
 
 

79 Explanations Proteins 1 12:00

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 78

80 Proteins 2 25:21

Picture of Proteins 2

Amino acids can be linked together in any sequence giving a huge range of possible polypeptides. There are 20 different amino acids in polypeptides synthesized on ribosomes. 

 

81 Explanations Proteins 2 10:00

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 80

82 Proteins 3 19:31

Picture of Proteins 3

The amino acid sequence of polypeptides is coded for by genes. A protein may consist of a single polypeptide or more than one polypeptide linked together. The amino acid sequence determines the three-dimensional conformation of a protein.

83 Explanations Proteins 3 14:00

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 82

84 Proteins 4 25:00

Picture of Proteins 4

Denaturation of proteins by heat or by deviation of pH from the optimum. Living organisms synthesize many different proteins with a wide range of functions. Every individual has a unique proteome.

Protein structure

85 Explanations Proteins 4 11:12

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 84

86 Enzymes 1 30:00

Picture of Enzymes 1

•Enzymes have an active site to which specific substrates bind. •Enzyme catalysis involves molecular motion and the collision of substrates with the active site.

How enzymes work

87 Explanations Enzymes 1 08:00

Explanations Home Work Paper of lesson 86

88 Enzymes 2 30:00

•Temperature, pH and substrate concentration affect the rate of activity of enzymes.
•Enzymes can be denatured.
 
 

89 Explanations Enzymes 2 08:00

Explanations Homework Paper of lesson 88

90 Enzymes 3 15:00

•Immobilized enzymes are widely used in industry
 

91 Explanations Enzymes 3 07:00

Explanations Homework Paper of lesson 90

92 Structure of DNA and RNA 1 20:23

•The nucleic acids DNA and RNA are polymers of nucleotides.
 

93 Explanations Structure of DNA and RNA 1 07:00

Explanations Homework Paper of lesson 92

94 Structure of DNA and RNA 2 17:11

•DNA differs from RNA in the number of strands present, the base composition and the type of pentose.

 

DNA and RNA

95 Explanations Structure of DNA and RNA 2 13:00

Explanations Homework Paper of lesson 94

96 Structure of DNA and RNA 3 14:31

DNA is a double helix made of two antiparallel strands of nucleotides linked by hydrogen bonding between complementary base pairs

97 Explanations Structure of DNA and RNA 3 15:00

Explanations Homework Paper of lesson 96

Section 6 Anabolism and catabolism

98 DNA replication 1 30:00

Picture of DNA replication 1
•The replication of DNA is semi-conservative and depends on complementary base pairing.
•Helicase unwinds the double helix and separates the two strands by breaking hydrogen bonds.
•DNA polymerase links nucleotides together to form a new strand, using the pre-existing strand as a template.
 

99 Explanations DNA replication 1 13:00

Explanations Homework Paper of lesson 98

100 DNA replication 2 25:00

Picture of DNA replication 2
•Helicase unwinds the double helix and separates the two strands by breaking hydrogen bonds.
 

101 Explanations DNA replication 2 08:00

Explanations Homework Paper of lesson 100

102 DNA replication 3 25:00

Picture of DNA replication 3
•DNA polymerase links nucleotides together to form a new strand, using the pre-existing strand as a template
 

103 Explanations DNA replication 3 06:00

Explanations Homework Paper of lesson 102

104 Transcription 1 11:46

Picture of Transcription 1
•Transcription is the synthesis of mRNA copied from the DNA base sequences by RNA polymerase.

105 Explanations Transcription 1 06:00

Explanations Homework Paper of lesson 104

106 Transcription 2 30:00

Picture of Transcription 2

Transcription occurs along one of the two strands of DNA. RNA polymerase binds on the DNA at the start of the gene, moves along the gene separating DNA,pairs up RNA nucleotides.

mRNA

107 Explanations Transcription 2 05:07

Explanations Homework Paper of lesson 106

108 Translation 1 23:07

Picture of Translation 1
•Translation is the synthesis of polypeptides on ribosomes.
•The amino acid sequence of polypeptides is determined by mRNA according to the genetic code.
•Codons of three bases on mRNA correspond to one amino acid in a polypeptide.
 
 

109 Explanations Translation 1 05:17

Explanations Homework Paper of lesson 108

110 Translation 2 16:38

Picture of Translation 2
•Codons of three bases on mRNA correspond to one amino acid in a polypeptide.

Translation depends on complementary base pairing between codons on mRNA and anticodons on tRNA

Translation

111 Explanations Translation 2 03:24

Explanations Homework Paper of lesson 110

112 Translation 3 10:08

Picture of Translation 3

Translation depends on complementary base pairing between codons on mRNA and anticodons on tRNA

Translation

113 Explanations Translation 3 06:00

Explanations Homework Paper of lesson 112

114 Cell respiration 1 30:00

Picture of Cell respiration 1
•Cell respiration is the controlled release of energy from organic compounds to produce ATP.
•ATP from cell respiration is immediately available as a source of energy in the cell.
 

115 Explanations Cell respiration 1 10:00

Explanations Homework Paper of lesson 114

116 Cell respiration 2 30:00

Picture of Cell respiration 2
•Anaerobic cell respiration gives a small yield of ATP from glucose.
•In glycolysis, glucose is converted to pyruvate in the cytoplasm.
•Glycolysis gives a small net gain of ATP without the use of oxygen
 

117 Explanations Cell respiration 2 08:00

Explanations Homework Paper of lesson 116

118 Cell respiration 3 30:00

Picture of Cell respiration 3
•Aerobic cell respiration requires oxygen and gives a large yield of ATP from glucose.
•In the link reaction pyruvate is converted into acetyl coenzyme A.
 

119 Explanations Cell respiration 3 08:00

Explanations Homework Paper of lesson 118

120 Cell respiration 4 25:00

Picture of Cell respiration 4
•In the Krebs cycle, the oxidation of acetyl coenzyme A releases  carbon dioxide
•In the Krebs cycle 2 molecules of ATP are produced
 
 

121 Explanations Cell respiration 4 10:00

Explanations Homework Paper of lesson 120

122 Cell respiration 5 30:00

Picture of Cell respiration 5
•Energy released by oxidation reactions is carried to the cristae of the mitochondria by reduced NAD and FAD.
•Transfer of electrons between carriers in the electron transport chain in the membrane of the cristae is coupled to proton pumping.
•In chemiosmosis protons diffuse through ATP synthase to generate ATP.
•Oxygen is needed to bind with the free protons to maintain the hydrogen gradient, resulting in the formation of water.
 

123 Explanations Cell respiration 5 08:00

Explanations Homework Paper of lesson 122

124 Cell respiration 6 30:00

Picture of Cell respiration 6
The structure of the mitochondrion is adapted to the function it performs.
 
 
 

125 Explanations Cell respiration 6 08:00

Explanations Homework Paper of lesson 124

126 Photosynthesis 1 30:00

Picture of Photosynthesis 1
1.Photosynthesis involves the conversion of light energy into chemical energy
2. Light from the Sun is composed of a range of wavelengths (colours)
 

127 Explanations Photosynthesis 1 09:00

Explanations Homework Paper of lesson 126

128 Photosynthesis 2 30:00

Picture of Photosynthesis 2

1.Chlorophyll is the main photosynthetic pigment 2.Difference in absorption of red, green and blue light by chlorophyll 3.Light energy is used to produce ATP, and to split water molecules (photolysis) to form oxygen and hydrogen

Virtual lab

129 Explanations Photosynthesis 2 08:00

Explanations Homework Paper of lesson 128

130 Photosynthesis 3 30:00

Picture of Photosynthesis 3

Light dependent reactions, photosystems, electron transport chain,products of the light dependent reactions (ATP and NADPH) are used in the light independent reactions

Light dependent stage

131 Explanations Photosynthesis 3 14:00

Explanations Homework Paper of lesson 130

132 Photosynthesis 4 20:00

Picture of Photosynthesis 4

Light independent stage.
ATP and hydrogen (derived from the photolysis of water) are used to fix carbon molecules to make organic molecules. Calvin cycle.

Calvin cycle

133 Explanations Photosynthesis 4 10:00

Explanations Homework Paper of lesson 132

134 Photosynthesis 5 25:00

Picture of Photosynthesis 5
1.Effect of temperature, light intensity and carbon dioxide concentration on the rate of photosynthesis
 
 
 

135 Explanations Photosynthesis 5 14:00

Explanations Homework Paper of lesson 134

Course Description:

This course includes resources designed to support high school students through their preparation in Biology. It will help students gain an understanding of what is expected from them to know for their preparation for colleges. It is a comprehensive coverage of the cell and molecular biology syllabus. The integrated support materials help to maximizing achievements.

Each lesson starts with the essential idea and the main understandings of it. The course includes images and drawings that facilitates learning and understanding. It helps students to gain skills they can apply in their future preparation in any science area.

Each resource includes a discussion question that students may want to share and provokes them to dig deeper in the topic. There are ethical issues involved in some biology topics that could make students to think about them.

The topics included are:

Cell Biology -Introduction to the cells; Ultrastructure of cells ; Membrane structure; Cell cycle; Cell division; The origin of cells

Molecular biology - Molecules to metabolism; Water; Carbohydrates and lipids; Proteins; Enzymes; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA replication, transcription and translation; Cell respiration; Photosynthesis

Course Goals:

This course is meant to overcome the difficulties in understanding the main concepts in cell and molecular biology. Most of the students who have demonstrated an interest in biology just give up because they think they cannot understand these two main units. This course helps them to understand them and to foster their courage and going on with even deeper digging in biology. Upon completion of this course, students will have the necessary knowledge and skills to advance to grade 12 biology.

Target Audience:

The target audience is 10th, 11th, or 12th grade students who have basic scientific literacy skills and are interested in applied sciences such as biology.

Course Requirements:

The students need to have a notebook to take notes and copy the information written on the board. After each lesson they need to read the attached restores and to complete the tasks given as quizzes and tests. By the end of each lesson preparation they need to make sure that that have understood the statements given in the beginning of each topic.

Course Includes

  • Over 30 hours of video content
  • 67 engaging video lessons
  • 59 key term worksheets
  • 52 tests
  • 52 test answer keys (for parents only, accessible under resources)
  • 67 video explanations of homework papers
  • Virtual labs weblinks
  • Animation of biological processes weblinks
  • Weblinks to videos for visualising biological phenomena

 

Unit 1. Cell Biology

1. Introduction to the cells

•According to the cell theory, living organisms are composed of cells.

•Organisms consisting of only one cell carry out all functions of life in that cell.

•Surface area to volume ratio is important in the limitation of cell size.

•Multicellular organisms have properties that emerge from the interaction of their cellular components.

•Specialized tissues can develop by cell differentiation in multicellular organisms.

•Differentiation involves the expression of some genes and not others in a cell’s genome.

•The capacity of stem cells to divide and differentiate along different pathways is necessary in embryonic development and also makes stem cells suitable for therapeutic uses.

 

2. Ultrastructure of cells

•Prokaryotes have a simple cell structure without compartmentalization.
•Eukaryotes have a compartmentalized cell structure.
•Electron microscopes have a much higher resolution than light microscopes.
 
 
3. Membrane structure
 
•Phospholipids form bilayers in water due to the amphipathic properties of phospholipid molecules.
•Membrane proteins are diverse in terms of structure, position in the membrane and function.
•Cholesterol is a component of animal cell membranes.
 
 
4. Cell cycle
 
•Particles move across membranes by simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis and active transport.
•The fluidity of membranes allows materials to be taken into cells by endocytosis or released by exocytosis. Vesicles move materials within cells.
 
 
5. Cell division
 
•Cells can only be formed by division of pre-existing cells.
•The first cells must have arisen from non-living material.
•The origin of eukaryotic cells can be explained by the endosymbiotic theory.
•Mitosis is division of the nucleus into two genetically identical daughter nuclei.
•Chromosomes condense by supercoiling during mitosis.
•Cytokinesis occurs after mitosis and is different in plant and animal cells.
•Interphase is a very active phase of the cell cycle with many processes occurring in the nucleus and cytoplasm.
•Cyclins are involved in the control of the cell cycle.
•Mutagens, oncogenes and metastasis are involved in the development of primary and secondary tumours.
 
 
Unit 2. Molecular biology
 
 
1. Molecules to metabolism
 
•Molecular biology explains living processes in terms of the chemical substances involved.
•Carbon atoms can form four covalent bonds allowing a diversity of stable compounds to exist.
•Life is based on carbon compounds including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.
•Metabolism is the web of all the enzyme-catalysed reactions in a cell or organism.
•Anabolism is the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler molecules including the formation of macromolecules from monomers by condensation reactions.
•Catabolism is the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler molecules including the hydrolysis of macromolecules into monomers.
 
 
2. Water
 
•Water molecules are polar and hydrogen bonds form between them.
•Hydrogen bonding and dipolarity explain the cohesive, adhesive, thermal and solvent properties of water.
•Substances can be hydrophilic or hydrophobic.
 
 
3. Carbohydrates and lipids
 
•Monosaccharide monomers are linked together by condensation reactions to form disaccharides and polysaccharide polymers.
•Fatty acids can be saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated.
•Unsaturated fatty acids can be cis or trans isomers.
•Triglycerides are formed by condensation from three fatty acids and one glycerol.
 
 
4. Proteins
 
•Amino acids are linked together by condensation to form polypeptides.
•There are 20 different amino acids in polypeptides synthesized on ribosomes.
•Amino acids can be linked together in any sequence giving a huge range of possible polypeptides.
•The amino acid sequence of polypeptides is coded for by genes.
•A protein may consist of a single polypeptide or more than one polypeptide linked together.
•The amino acid sequence determines the three-dimensional conformation of a protein.
•Living organisms synthesize many different proteins with a wide range of functions.
•Every individual has a unique proteome.
 
 
5. Enzymes
 
•Enzymes have an active site to which specific substrates bind.
•Enzyme catalysis involves molecular motion and the collision of substrates with the active site.
•Temperature, pH and substrate concentration affect the rate of activity of enzymes.
•Enzymes can be denatured.
•Immobilized enzymes are widely used in industry.
 
 
6. Structure of DNA and RNA
 
•The nucleic acids DNA and RNA are polymers of nucleotides.
•DNA differs from RNA in the number of strands present, the base composition and the type of pentose.
•DNA is a double helix made of two antiparallel strands of nucleotides linked by hydrogen bonding between complementary base pairs.
 
 
7. DNA replication, transcription and translation
 
•The replication of DNA is semi-conservative and depends on complementary base pairing.
•Helicase unwinds the double helix and separates the two strands by breaking hydrogen bonds.
•DNA polymerase links nucleotides together to form a new strand, using the pre-existing strand as a template.
•Transcription is the synthesis of mRNA copied from the DNA base sequences by RNA polymerase.
•Translation is the synthesis of polypeptides on ribosomes.
•The amino acid sequence of polypeptides is determined by mRNA according to the genetic code.
•Codons of three bases on mRNA correspond to one amino acid in a polypeptide.
•Translation depends on complementary base pairing between codons on mRNA and anticodons on tRNA.
 
 
8. Cell respiration
 
•Cell respiration is the controlled release of energy from organic compounds to produce ATP.
•ATP from cell respiration is immediately available as a source of energy in the cell.
•Anaerobic cell respiration gives a small yield of ATP from glucose.
•Aerobic cell respiration requires oxygen and gives a large yield of ATP from glucose.
 
 
9. Photosynthesis
 
•Photosynthesis is the production of carbon compounds in cells using light energy.
•Visible light has a range of wavelengths with violet the shortest wavelength and red the longest.
•Chlorophyll absorbs red and blue light most effectively and reflects green light more than other colours.
•Oxygen is produced in photosynthesis from the photolysis of water.
•Energy is needed to produce carbohydrates and other carbon compounds from carbon dioxide.
•Temperature, light intensity and carbon dioxide concentration are possible limiting factors on the rate of photosynthesis.
 
 
 
  • Teacher: Miglena
  • Areas of expertise: Biology and Chemistry
  • Education: Master Degree in Science
  • Interests: Teaching worldwide
  • Skills: Working with international students with diverse background, International Baccalaureate Biology and Chemistry teacher
  • Associations: California Teacher Association
  • Issues I care about: Each individual student has own interests and history

I would like to say that every one is capable to understand science with a little effort and will become more and more curious as soon as gain confidence. One man is wise when has more questions than answers in mind. One man is reacher when has knowledge.

Answer key

Answer key of the tests

More about cells

Multiple choice questions and extended answer questions 

Cell structures

Data based question, reading electron micrographs

Membrane transport

Data-based questions, reading and interpreting graphs

Cell biology final test

MCQ, extended answer questions, micrographs, reading graphs

Carbohydrates and lipids

Body mass index calculation

Lipids and carbohydrates

Data-based question, interpreting data

DNA

Meselson and Stahl experiment

Cell respiration

Data-based question, interpreting graphs

Molecules to metabolism end of unit test

MCQ, extended answer questions,
reading graphs

Preset Color